Just a short time ago, Fatwa-Online was informed of the official decision and announcement of the High Judiciary Council (HJC) of Saudi Arabia regarding the beginning of Dhul-Hijjah. Read more ›
Category Archives: International News
Peace be unto you(Asalaamu’alikum),
‘Ashura’ commemorates the day that Allah saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh.
Fasting on Muharram 10, known as the Day of ‘Ashura’, expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews there fasted on Muharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said,” This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah.”
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said,
“We are closer to Musa than you are.”
He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. (Al-Bukhari) The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of ‘Ashura’ became optional. It is also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) intended to fast on the ninth and tenth. Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of ‘Ashura’ and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said, “O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor.” The Prophet said, “When the following year comes, Allah willing, we shall fast on the ninth.” The death of the Prophet came before the following year. (Muslim and Abu Dawud) For more on ‘Ashura’ and Muharram, please read: The Significance of Fasting the Day of ‘Ashura’ Virtues of the Month of Muharram & Fasting during It
We have a very special Aqeeqah tomorrow in the Myf on the day of Ashura at Magrib time. A lot of people will be fasting, so please join us for the Aqeeqah.
Everybody is welcome
The Myf Team
Anytime a Muslim is making a decision, he or she should seek Allah’s guidance and wisdom. Allah alone knows what is best for us, and there may be good in what we perceive as bad, and bad in what we perceive as good.
Prophet Muhammad’s SAW Farewell Sermon / خطبة الودا, Khutbatu l-Wada
9 DhulHijjah 10 AH (9 March 632) at Mount Arafat
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) undertook his farewell pilgrimage in the year 10 A.H. His farewell pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the most significant historical events in the minds of Muslims, for it was the first and last pilgrimage made by Prophet Muhammad, as well as being the model for performing the fifth pillar of Islam, the Hajj. Read more ›
Preface: This is only a summary of the life of Sa’id ibn Aamir al-Jumahi (RA) and does not cover all the points of his life story. It is not intended to be a biography, but rather a glimpse of the main incidents of his life so that we can get an idea of his character. For ease of reading, we have not inserted “May Allah be pleased with him (RA)” each time his name or the name of each Companion is mentioned, but please take it that the salutations apply to all of them, may Allah be pleased with them all. Read more ›
Preface: This is only a summary of the life of Jaafar ibn Abi Talib (RA) and does not cover all the points of his life story. It is not intended to be a biography, but rather a glimpse of the main incidents of his life so that we can get an idea of his character. For ease of reading, we have not inserted “May Allah be pleased with him (RA)” each time his name or the name of each Companion is mentioned, but please take it that the salutations apply to all of them, may Allah be pleased with them all. Read more ›
Part I of this beautiful story took us from the creation of Adam AS to creation of Hawwa as his companion. Let’s now follow them into the Garden of Paradise, through the dramatic turn that their lives are about to take, unknown to them, through their journey on Earth. Read more ›
In approaching Adam’s AS story, it is important to keep in mind that his story begins in the spiritual world, in the timeless, spaceless realm of Allah and His angels. And While Adam AS is obviously the most important character in his own story, there is another character who is also of great importance, Iblees or Shaytan, the arch-villain. Adam’s AS story is a history of our species. He is both the first man and ancestor of the human race. At a deeper level, his story is also a subtle allegory concerning mankind and the human condition, both before and after the Fall. We hope this summary of his story serves to give us a deeper insight of our true origin, nature and identity, so that we can know who we truly are and where we belong in the divine scheme of things.
THE CREATION OF PROPHET ADAM
Before the creation of mortals, Almighty Allah directed all the angels to assemble. Thousands upon thousands of angels (created from light) and Jinns (created from fire) gathered in groups. They bowed respectfully in the presence of Almighty Allah. The Creator of the universe declared that he intended to create Man. And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” (Qur’an 2:30) [So mention] when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I am going to create a human being from clay. (Qur’an 38:71) The angels and Azazil or Iblees (Shaytan) reacted with surprise and concern. They quickly pointed out that human beings would cause disorder on the earth. They would make mischief and shed blood indiscriminately.
The Qur’an gives a description of this event in the following verses:
They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” (Qur’an 2:30)
Allah, the Subtle, the All-Aware, knew with perfect knowledge that the angels neither intended to contradict Him nor express enmity towards His new creation. Rather, out of their boundless love for Him and protectiveness of His sanctity and majesty, they were simply asking to be informed about what they did not understand. Hence, Allah Most High, was not angry, but merely said to them,
“Indeed, I know that which you do not know.” (Qur’an 2:30) In a hadith, Prophet Muhammad SAW said, Allah created Adam from a handful of clay which He took from the whole of the earth; so the children of Adam are in accordance with the earth, some red, some white some black, some a mixture, also smooth and rough, bad and good. (Mishkat) And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “I will create a human being out of clay from an altered black mud. (Qur’an 15:28)
The clay was brought to Allah at His command by the Angel of Death and from this clay Allah created the first human being, Adam. Adam AS, the first prophet, the father of all mankind. Several hadith mention the day on which Adam AS was created.
The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday. On it, Adam was created and on it he was made to enter Paradise on it he was cast out of it. And the Last Hour will not take place on any day other than Friday. (Muslim)
And what more blessed day for the most perfect and developed of Allah’s creations! Describing the creation of Adam AS, Prophet Muhammad SAW said,
Allah created Adam AS in his finished form and his height was sixty cubits (about 41 meters or 126 feet)…. Therefore, all who enter Paradise will be of the form of Adam, and the people have not stopped decreasing in stature up to the present. (Bukhari)
Prophet Muhammad SAW also said,
When Allah had fashioned Adam in Paradise, He left him as he willed to leave him. Then Iblees went around him to see what he was. And when he found him hollow, he recognised he has been created with an uncontrolled disposition. (Muslim)
Allah then breathed life into His creation. The breath came from the front of Adam’s head, narrated Ibn Abbas RA, and everything that flowed from it within his body became flesh and blood. [So mention] when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I am going to create a human being from clay. So when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of My [created] soul, then fall down to him in prostration.” (Qur’an 38:71-72)
Prophet Muhammad SAW informs us, as recorded in Mishkat, when the breath in Adam’s AS body was complete, he sneezed and by divine inspiration he said, “Alhamdu lil Lahi Rabbil Alamin (All praise is for Allah, Lord of the worlds), words which became the opening verses of the Holy Qur’an. Thus Adam AS praised Allah by His own permission. And Allah replied to him, “Yarhamak-Allah, Adam (may Allah have mercy on you).” The Prophet SAW further said that when Allah created Adam, He to him, “Go and greet that group of seated angels and then listen to what they will greet you with, for that will be your greeting and the greeting of your descendants.” So Adam said to the angels, “As-salamu ‘alaikum (peace be upon you all),” to which they replied, “As-salamu ‘alaika wa rahmat-Allah (peace be upon you, and Allah’s mercy).” (Bukhari)
ADAM IS TAUGHT THE NAMES
And He taught Adam the names – all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, “Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful.” (Qur’an 2:31)
Allah taught Adam the names of all things and inculcated into his mind the knowledge of their properties. What were these names that Allah taught Adam AS? There are various interpretations of this by Qur’an commentators. Some affirm that Adam was taught the names of angels, others say that the names were names of his own descendants, and others say that the names were holy names of Allah Himself, by which Adam AS was granted knowledge of his Lord. Majority agree that the names taught to Adam were the names of all things living and non-living. Allah’s words, “Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful” according to most interpretations, refer to the truthfulness of the angels’ claim of possessing knowledge that their Lord’s new creation would cause corruption and shed blood on earth, and that they themselves, as the most obedient and worshipful among his creations, were the most deserving of filling the role of His khalifah. Allah was making clear to the angels that Adam AS possessed certain characteristics and knowledge which they themselves did not possess, and that because of this, he would have a very different role and destiny from theirs. Allah most High, informed the angels that He was aware of their reservations, at the same time reminding them of the limitations of their knowledge, while assuring them that, according to His infinite knowledge and wisdom, the creation of Adam was entirely good, right and proper.
The angels then understood Allah’s wisdom and voiced their submission to His Glory:
“Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise.” (Qur’an 2:32) Allah then addressed His new creation. He said, “O Adam, inform them of their names.” And when he had informed them of their names, (Qur’an 2:33)
And then Adam AS did so. From the special knowledge Allah had granted him, he told the angels the names of the things that Allah had presented to them, names which the angels themselves did not know. And when Adam AS had finished, Allah Almighty again addressed the angels,
“Did I not tell you that I know the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you have concealed.” (Qur’an 2:33)
In a broader sense, this may refer to Allah’s perfect knowledge, which the angels were not privy to, of the final destiny of His creation, in which Adam and his descendants would play a major role.
THE COMMAND TO HONOUR ADAM
Allah asked all the angels to bow as a mark of respect to Adam who was created so miraculously. The order to prostrate was obviously not so that the angels would worship Adam AS, for no one may be worshipped except Allah, the Creator of all things. Rather, the prostration was a mark of respect to the one whom their Lord in His infinite wisdom had created in a special manner who as a result would have a special destiny, as the father of mankind who carried within himself the seeds of all his descendants to come.
And We have certainly created you, [O Mankind], and given you [human] form. Then We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam”; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He was not of those who prostrated. (Qur’an 7:11)
And when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of My [created] soul, then fall down to him in prostration.” So the angels prostrated – all of them entirely, Except Iblees, he refused to be with those who prostrated. (Qur’an 15:29-31)
When Allah Most High, the All-Powerful, the Glorious, the Majestic, had given this order, all those who heard it, obeyed without question except one among them – Iblees. When this occurred, the previously unsuspecting angels became aware of had been concealed in Iblees’ heart. The arrogant, stubborn, proud Iblees who thought his being as Jinn made of fire was far superior to Allah’s creation from clay. Allah in his divine Mercy, gave Iblees a hearing for his blatant rebellion. Instead of showing remorse, the wretched Iblees attempted to justify his disobedience and shamelessly said,
“Never would I prostrate to a human whom You created out of clay from an altered black mud.” (15:33) “Should I prostrate to one You created from clay?” (Qur’an 17:62)
“Do You see this one whom You have honoured above me? If You delay me until the Day of Resurrection, I will surely destroy his descendants, except for a few.” (Qur’an 17:63)
Allah then condemned Iblees and banished him from Paradise.
Allah said, “Then get out of it, for indeed, you are expelled. And indeed, upon you is the curse until the Day of Recompense.” (Qur’an 15:34-35)
“Get out of Paradise, reproached and expelled. Whoever follows you among them – I will surely fill Hell with you, all together.” (Qur’an 7:18)
The arrogant Iblees, not to be outdone, goes on unabashedly, challenging Allah that as he had been let to fall into error, he would make evil and disobedience attractive for those on earth and mislead all mankind.
“Because You have put me in error, I will surely sit in wait for them on Your straight path. (Qur’an 7:16)
“By your might, I will surely mislead them all, Except, among them, Your chosen servants.” (Qur’an 38:82-83) A
llah in all His powerful grace, declares, This is a path [of return] to Me [that is] straight. Indeed, My servants – no authority will you have over them, except those who follow you of the deviators. And indeed, Hell is the promised place for them all. (Qur’an 15:41-43)
But Iblees being Iblees, is not moved at all by the prospects of Hell, inflamed and determined to destroy the race of the one on whose account he had gone astray. The transition from a devoted worshipper and teacher of the angels, excelling in divine knowledge and the praise of his Lord, to the abased, accursed Tempter of mankind was now complete. Stripped of all the high honours, Iblees stands accursed, outlawed, and now known as Shaytan, leader of the forces of evil whose sole purpose is to entice and incite Allah’s slaves to wrong-doing and disobedience to Him.
With that, Iblees was cast out of Paradise, an abode filled with blessings and favours beyond imagination. Our forefather Adam AS was settled in Paradise, with everything he could desire, every kind of pure pleasure and wholesome satisfaction was his. No hunger or thirst, fatigue or boredom, cold or heat, just comfort and pleasure. No burdens or responsibilities, no sufferings, pain or sadness. In Ibn Abbas’ narrations, Adam AS fell asleep in Paradise. And when he woke, he found a woman, whom Allah had created from his rib, sitting beside his head.
It is He who created you from one soul and created from it its mate that he might dwell in security with her. (Qur’an 7:189)
To test the extent of Adam’s AS knowledge, the angels asked him, “What is her name, O Adam?” “Hawwa,” he replied “Why is she called Hawwa?” the angels asked “Because she was created from something living (hayy),” Adam AS replied, meaning that she been created from his own living self. And thus Adam and Hawwa began their life together in the blessed Garden, like innocent new‑borns, they knew nothing of evil or sin. They hadn’t the slightest idea of what lay ahead, that their Lord would soon be testing them and that their lives would change dramatically.
In Part II of Adam’s AS story, we will follow them into Paradise, where they will fall prey to Shaytan’s evil connivery in tasting from the Forbidden Tree, their subsequent banishment from Paradise to Earth, their lives together on Earth, their first descendants, their sons Qabil (Cane) and Habil (Abel) and the first bloodshed, concluding this amazing journey with Adam’s AS death.
Acknowledgement: Most of the information for this work has been obtained from:
“A History of the Prophets of Islam”, Volume I, by Suzanne Haneef
“Stories of the Prophets”, by Ibn Kathir (Translation by Rashad Ahmad Azami)
Prophet Ibrahim AS is one of the greatest Prophets and the father of us all. He is described by Allah as being an Ummah (Qur’an 16:120-123). Muslims, Jews and Christians all trace roots back to him. Ibrahim AS is mentioned in our prayers, at least 5 times a day, such an honoured position has he, and he was described as Khalil-ullah – the Friend of Allah SWT (Qur’an 4:125). In Islam, Ibrahim AS is seen as a strict monotheist who calls his people to the worship Allah. For this belief, he bears great hardships, even disassociating himself with his family and people through migration to various lands. He is one who fulfills various commandments of Allah though which he is tested, proving true to each one.
Due to this strength of faith, the Qur’an attributes the one and only true religion to be the “Path of Ibrahim”, even though prophets before him, such as Nuh, called to the same faith.
From Ibrahim’s AS two sons lie the lineage of the Muslims and the Jews. Due to the excellence of Ibrahim AS, Allah made prophets from his progeny, from them Ismail, Ishaq, Yaakub and Musa, guiding people to the truth.
Many Qur’anic verses revealed concerning him suggest that his outstanding importance and high rank among prophets was because of the purity and sincerity of his relationship with his Lord, to whom he totally surrendered his will. It is essential that Muslims know of the story of Prophet Ibrahim AS as much of Islam refers to him.
The greatness of Ibrahim’s AS standing with Allah is confirmed in a number of hadiths. The Holy Prophet SAW referred to him as “the best of creation” (Muslim) and mentioned him as one of the prophets whose intercession the believers would seek on the Day of Judgement (Bukhari). Prophet Muhammad SAW also reported meeting Ibrahim AS in one of the heavens during the Night Journey Me’raj, saying that he found Ibrahim AS seated in al-Bait Al-Ma’mur, the Populated House, in which 70,000 angels pray in successive groups never to return to it again (Bukhari, Mishkat).
HONOURS AND FAVOURS GRANTED TO IBRAHIM AS
- He was singled out as the exemplar of al-dina hanifa, the path of belief and worship of Allah and His absolute attributes (Qur’an 3:67).
- Allah chose him to be His close friend, one of the most impressive indications of Ibrahim’s AS high rank (Qur’an 4:125).
- He ranks among the five greatest prophets, ulu-l-azm, with Nuh, Musa, Isa and Muhammad, Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them all (Qur’an 42:13; 33:7).
- Due to the depth of his faith, Allah made Ibrahim AS one of the greatest religious figures of all times, according to His promise (Qur’an 2:124).
- Allah answered Ibrahim’s AS prayer, “My Lord, grant me authority and join me with the righteous. And grant me a reputation of honour among later generations.” (Qur’an 26:83-84), by granting him the highest honour and repute among all the generations of believers who came after him. The followers of all three monotheistic faiths, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, deeply revere Ibrahim AS.
- Allah answered his prayer for a son from among the righteous (Qur’an 37:100) by granting him Ishaq as well as Ismail AS. Ismail AS was also a prophet from whose line of descent came the last and greatest of prophets, Muhammad SAW.
- Ibrahim’s AS prayer for the people of Mecca, (Qur’an 2:129) was also fulfilled through Muhammad SAW. His prayers for Mecca and its inhabitants (Qur’an 14:35-41) was similarly answered.
- Allah revealed to him a sacred scripture, mentioned in (Qur’an 87:18-19). No trace of the scripture remains. However it is mentioned in hadith.
- Ibrahim AS was granted the honour of establishing many of the basic practices of Islam prior to Muhammad’s SAW time, which were later followed by Prophet Muhammad SAW and which continue to be followed by Muslims up to today.
- Allah further honoured Ibrahim AS by ordaining that Muslims recall him and important events in his life in the rites of the pilgrimage Hajj and Umrah. Connected with this is also the commemoration of Ibrahim’s AS sacrifice of his son during Eid-ul-Adha.
- All the prophets mentioned in the Qur’an who lived after Ibrahim’s AS time were his descendants.
Let’s now begin an exciting, eventful journey through the life of the Friend of Allah, Prophet Ibrahim, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.
THE PEOPLE OF IBRAHIM AS
Ur, which is now part of southern Iraq, according to tradition is the place where Ibrahim AS began his mission as a prophet. In his time, the city of Ur was a flourishing industrial and business centre. The people who lived there were a community of idol-worshippers, ruled by a proud, tyrannical king Nimrud. It is said he was one of the four greatest kings of ancient times amongst prophet-king Sulaiman AS, Dhul-Qarnain and Nebuchadnezzar. In addition to being the supreme ruler, Nimrud had established himself as a god who was worshipped by his people, together with their other gods.
THE BEGINNING OF IBRAHIM’S AS LIFE
It said by Qur’anic narrators that before Ibrahim’s AS birth, a star appeared, of such shimmering brightness that it outshone the sun and moon. This frightened the king and he called his magicians and astrologers to ask them the meaning of this occurrence.
They replied that a man would arise in his territory who was destined to destroy him and his rule. Hearing this, Nimrud left and moved to another town, compelling everyone to move with him and ordering the killing of any boy to be born to them.
Ibrahim’s AS father Azar placed his pregnant wife in cave, fearing for his unborn.
After a while, when the soothsayers’ prophecies were not fulfilled, Nimrud decided that they had been merely lies of the magicians. He ordered his people to return home and soon forgot about the matter.
Meanwhile, Ibrahim AS was born in the cave, where he spent his early years. He grew up quickly, without seeing any human beings besides his parents.
When Azar was assured that there was nothing to fear from the king, he went to the cave and took his boy out. It is said that Ibrahim AS was about 10 years old at that time.
ENLIGHTMENT AND PROPHETHOOD
Azar was an idol-worshipper and thus would have taught Ibrahim AS about the religion of deities and temples. At a time of life when other children are occupied with childish pursuits, Ibrahim AS had already concluded about the idols his people worshipped. It is also suggested that he may already have begun to discuss and debate the matter with his father Azar, as suggested in the Qur’an 6:74.
When night fell, he saw a star and exclaimed it to be his Lord (Qur’an 6:76) and likewise when he saw the moon rising (Qur’an 6:67). But the star and the moon set and Ibrahim AS reconsidered the matter. A disappearing object could not be his Lord or the Lord of anything else. And with the innate understanding of his pure fitrah, he turned to the true Lord for enlightenment asking for guidance and not to stray (Qur’an 6:77).
When day dawned and he saw the sun rising, he claimed the sun to be his Lord but then the sun too set (Qur’an 6:78).
Thus Ibrahim AS concluded that his people, with their worship of heavenly bodies and images made by their own hands, were in the gravest error and confusion. There could be no God except the Creator all things including those heavenly bodies which were the greatest of all material objects and which his people unthinkingly worshipped in place of the One who had created them.
Ibrahim’s AS heart was now firmly fixed upon his Lord with deep certainty. The heart of the young prophet-to-be was guided and illuminated by his Lord, expanded and deepened, as Allah revealed to him the secrets of His divine Essence, the mysteries of creation, and the great, all-wise workings of His Will (Qur’an 6:75).
Consequently, Ibrahim AS came to his Lord with a sound heart, free of any trace of doubt or questioning. He surrendered with deep and absolute faith to Allah at the command of the Lord of the worlds.
Ibrahim AS made a request of his Lord. The deep loving familiarity between him and his Lord is shown in his manner of making the request.
“My Lord,” Ibrahim AS said humbly, “show me how You give life to the dead” (Qur’an 2:260).
“Do you not have faith?”, came the response (Qur’an 2:260)
“Yes,” Ibrahim AS replied firmly, “but my heart may be satisfied” (Qur’an 2:260)
Then Allah most Gracious gave Ibrahim the answer.
“Then take four birds and make them attached to you,” Allah instructed the young prophet. “Then put part of them on each hill and call them. They will come to you quickly. And know that Allah is Almighty and Wise” (Qur’an 2:260) Read more ›
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